Current Risks of Transfusion-Transmitted Agents: A Review (Report) - Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

Current Risks of Transfusion-Transmitted Agents: A Review (Report)

By Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

  • Release Date - Published: 2007-05-01
  • Book Genre: Health & Fitness
  • Author: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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Current Risks of Transfusion-Transmitted Agents: A Review (Report) Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine read online review & book description:

Infectious disease testing of blood for transfusion in the United States in 2006 includes the routine use of conventional serologic tests for antigens and/or antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 and type 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2); hepatitis B virus (HBV); hepatitis C virus (HCV); human T-cell lymphotropic viruses, type I and type II; and syphilis. In addition, incident cases of HIV-1 and HCV infections are detected by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT); NAT is also used by some blood centers for HBV DNA detection and by virtually all blood collection facilities for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA detection. Nucleic acid amplification testing for the release of blood for transfusion is performed in small pools of equal aliquots of 6 to 24 donations each, referred to as minipool (MP) NAT, or performed individually (ID) by some smaller systems (ID NAT).1 Nucleic acid amplification testing was originally introduced in some European countries in 1995 as a method to reduce viral loads for plasma-derived products, but NAT was implemented for all donations in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and much of Europe in 1998 to 2000 to reduce the residual risk of HIV and HCV transmission by all components. 2 Similarly, because septic transfusion reactions due to bacterial contamination of platelets have been recognized as a serious hazard of transfusion, various methods for detecting bacterial contamination of platelets were introduced in the United States in 2004. (3,4)

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