This book describes Forearm Fractures, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases
Forearm fractures are frequent in childhood, responsible for more than 40% of all childhood fractures.
The forearm comprises 2 bones: the radius and the ulna.
About 75% forearm fractures in children happen at the wrist end of the radius.
Forearm fractures often happen when children are playing on the playground or taking part in sports.
If a child takes a trip and falls onto an outstretched arm, there is a chance it may lead to a forearm fracture.
A child's bones recover more quickly than an adult's, so it is important to treat a fracture promptly before healing begins to avoid future problems.
Fractures can happen in one or both bones of the forearm, and in a number of places along the bone:
1. Near the wrist, at the farthest (distal) end of the bone
2. In the middle of the forearm
3. Near the elbow, at the top (proximal) end of the bone
There are several forms of forearm fractures in children:
1. Torus fracture
This is a stable fracture, indicating that the broken pieces of bone are still remained in place and have not displaced (separated apart).
2. Metaphyseal fracture
The fracture is mainly over the upper or lower part of the shaft of the bone and does not involve the growth plate.
3. Greenstick fracture
The fracture expands through a segment of the bone, inducing it to bend on the other side.
4. Galeazzi fracture
There is normally a displaced fracture in the radius and a dislocation of the ulna at the wrist, where the radius and ulna meet together.
5. Monteggia fracture
There is normally a fracture in the ulna and the head of the radius is often dislocated.
This is a very serious injury and needs urgent treatment.
6. Growth plate fracture
In most patients, this form of fracture happens in the growth plate of the radius near the wrist.
Since the growth plate helps to decide the future length and shape of the mature bone, this form of fracture needs immediate attention.
The forearm fracture has led to a bent appearance of the forearm.
X-rays supply very clear images of bone fractures
The treatment for forearm fractures is dependent on the type of fracture and the degree of displacement.
The doctor will use one of these treatments, or a combination of both, to treat a forearm fracture:
Some stable fractures, such as buckle fractures, may simply require the support of a cast or splint while they cover.
For more serious fractures that have become angled, the doctor may be able to manipulate or gently place the bones into place without surgery.
This method is called a closed reduction.
Later, the arm is immobilized in a cast or splint while it recovers.
Casts help to support and protect broken bones while they recover.
In some cases, the surgery is required to align the pieces of bone and hold them in place.
The doctor may advise surgery if:
1. The bone has broken through the skin
This type of injury (termed an open fracture) is at risk for infection and needs specific treatment
2. The fracture is unstable because the ends of the broken bones will not stay aligned.
3. Bone parts have been displaced.
4. The bones cannot be aligned appropriately through manipulation alone
5. The bones have already started to recover at an angle or in an improper position
During surgery, the doctor will incise the skin and reposition the broken bone fragments (a method called an open reduction).
The doctor may use pins, metal implants, or a cast to hold the broken bones in place until they have recovered.
A stable fracture, such as a buckle fracture, may need 3 to 4 weeks to be in a cast.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter 1 Forearm Fractures
Chapter 2 Causes
Chapter 3 Symptoms
Chapter 4 Diagnosis
Chapter 5 Treatment
Chapter 6 Prognosis
Chapter 7 Colles Fracture
Chapter 8 Scaphoid Fracture