This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This report assesses China's global expansion by military and nonmilitary means, implications of China's activities, and the U.S. response, as mandated by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, Public Law 115-91. China's Global Expansion - The report describes China's expansion by a range of means, including military access and engagement; the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) and Digital Silk Road initiatives; technology acquisition; and a growing economic footprint; with a focus on areas of military expertise. The Chinese Communist Party's foreign policy reflects its strategic objectives. The U.S. National Security Strategy states that China seeks to displace the United States in the Indo-Pacific region, expand the reaches of its state-driven economic model, and reorder the region in its favor as the preeminent power. China's most substantial expansion of its military access in recent years has occurred in its near-abroad, where territorial disputes in the East and South China Seas persist, but China has also expanded its military operations further from the Chinese mainland. China seeks this presence based on its changing military focus and expanding international economic interests, which are increasing demands for the PLA to operate in more distant maritime environments to protect Chinese citizens, investments, and critical sea lines of communication.
China in 2018 indicated interest in establishing bases in Cambodia and Vanuatu. Although both governments have publicly stated they are not willing to host a Chinese military base, Phnom Penh in the last two years has agreed to receive new military aid from Beijing and participate in bilateral exercises with the PLA. In 2017, China's leaders said OBOR, which at first included economic initiatives in Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Europe, now encompasses all regions of the world, including the Arctic and Latin America, demonstrating the scope and reach of Beijing's ambition. While some OBOR projects appear to be motivated by economic considerations, OBOR also serves a greater strategic purpose. China intends to use OBOR to develop strong economic ties with other countries, shape their interests to align with China's, and deter confrontation or criticism of China's approach to or stance on sensitive issues.
Contents: Assessment on U.S. Defense Implications of China's Expanding Global Access * 2019 U.S. Intelligence Community Worldwide Threat Assessment